*All frogs in the order Anura are Hawaii State Injurious Species. It is prohibited to release Injurious Species into the wild; transport them to islands or locations within the State where they are not already established; or export outside the State. for more information, see dlnr.hawaii.gov/wildlife/invasives/injurious-wildlife/
- Small, nocturnal (night-active) frog about the size of a quarter, up to two inches in length
- Usually brown or gray-brown, may have a lighter stripe down its back
- Male’s mating call is a two-note, high-pitched “co-qui” (pronounced ko-kee)
- Native to Puerto Rico, accidentally introduced to Hawaii hidden in plants around or before 1988
- No natural predators to keep populations in check (and no natural competitors)
- In areas in Hawaii where coquis consistently reach densities over 90,000 frogs ha−1, they are thought to consume 690,000 invertebrates ha−1 night−1 (Beard et al, 2008) and reduce invertebrate populations (Sin et al, 2008).
- Eat huge quantities of insects, removing insects from forest floor to treetops.
- Loss of insect services such as pollination
- Disrupt the balance of vulnerable native ecosystems
- Potential food source for snakes if they were to arrive
- The noise from their calls (80–90db at 0.5m), which is greater than levels set to minimize interference with the enjoyment of life (Beard and Pitt, 2005).
- Adverse economic impacts on tourism
- Decreased export plant sales
- Disclosure requirement for real estate transactions, has resulted in decreased property values in some locations
- Kauai – A breeding population of coqui covering about 10 acres was discovered in Lawai in 2001. After extensive efforts by KISC and partner agencies to eradicate coqui from Kauai, the island was declared officially coqui-free in June, 2012.
- Oahu – Previously, the only wild land population was located in Wahiawa and had over 100 calling frogs. Due to the efforts of HDOA, OISC, Oahu Army Natural Resources Program and DLNR, this population has been eradicated. Frogs are still found at nurseries and the owners are cooperating with the Oahu Coqui Frog Working Group. In early 2021, The Hawai`i Department of Agriculture (HDOA) detected a coqui frog infestation in a remote area of Waimanalo and is coordinating a multi-agency eradication.
On Oahu and think you hear coqui? Call 643-PEST or click here for more information.
- Maui – MISC’s Coqui Frog Control Program has a full-time crew that spends a majority of their time controlling coqui frogs within Maui’s populations and the Coqui Control Community Program Haʻikū community members are coming together to bring back their quiet nights, protect their property values, and protect their local environment from invasive coqui frogs. On Maui and think you hear coqui? Report Maui coqui here.
- Molokai – There are currently no populations of coqui on Molokai. MoMISC works to educate community members to aid in early detection, which succeeded in 2002 when a lone calling coqui was reported and subsequently captured by MoMISC.
For more information, see:
- Certified Coqui-Free Program from MISC
- Eleutherodactylus coqui information from HEAR
- Eleutherodactylus coqui information from ISSG
Tips for Maui Residents:
- Eliminate frog-friendly habitat
- Catch or spray your own coqui
- Citric mixing guidelines. This page has guidelines; be sure to follow all label directions.
- Build a CoquiBarrier
- Information on sprayers suitable for homeowner control of coqui frogs: Sprayer Info
- Report your coqui control efforts using Google Earth
Coqui Related Research:
- Eleutherodactylus coqui Thomas (Caribbean tree frog) – Choi and Beard, 2012
- Coqui frog invasions change invertebrate communities in Hawaii – Choi and Beard, 2012.
- Potential consequences of the coqui frog invasion – Beard and Pitt, 2005.
- Coqui Frog Research and Management in Hawaii – Radford and Sin, 2007
- Strong founder effects and low genetic diversity in introduced populations of Coqui frogs – Peacock, Beard, O’Neill, Kirchoff, and Peters, 2009
- Evolutionary Consequences of the Introduction of Eleutherodactylus – O’Neill, 2009
- Predicting the Distribution Potential of Coqui – Bisrat, White, Beard, and Cutler, 2012
- Genetic Basis of a Color Pattern Polymorphism in the Coqui Frog Eleutherodactylus coqui – O’Neill and Beard, 2010
- Aerially applied citric acid reduces the density of an invasive frog in Hawaii, USA – Tuttle, Beard, and Al-Chokhachy 2008